Rule of Thirds, Triangle and Golden Spiral are all composition rules. Composition rules provide guidance to how the image should be laid out. Firstly, the rule of thirds, is a simple two horizontal and two vertical line grid. The editor/photographer should position all the relevant and important information on the lines or where they intersect, this is so that the viewer will be drawn to these parts making the overall image more interesting.
The triangle rule has the exact same principle as the rule of Thirds. Except, As you can see, to create the triangle you need to draw a line from two opposite corners of the image. Then from that line, draw two perpendicular lines going to the other two corners. Experimenting with different compositions can help provide a better overall image.
The Golden spiral also has the same principle as both the Rule of Thirds and the Triangle Rule. The Golden Spiral is perfect for this photo as it has a large open space to the left and a lot of detail on the right. Furthermore, the spiral leads you on a path to the important aspect in the picture.