NOTE: Remember to include: What, When, Where, Why, Who and How?
Also, research the different types of techniques and methods.
The purpose of a printer is to copy the original image or text so that you can create an exact copy/clone multiple times.
Timeline for Printing
(301 – 400) In the fourth century, India intended to copy religious texts onto clay tablets. They did this, so that they could read and learn from their practices and to preserve the tablets in the best condition.
(618 – 906) The wood block printing method was first developed in China. The wooden block has patterns, text and images engraved onto the bottom of the block, then it is inked and copied multiple times.
NOTE: The Diamond Sutra was created in 868, making it the first full-length book, complete with illustrations, text and images.
(1241) Korea invented the Cast Metal Movable type printer. It was used to print the Yi Munsun Chip, an eight-volume works of Yi Munsun, the great poet, scholar, and statesmen of Korea’s Koryo Dynasty. Several other Korean books are printed using movable type
(1300) China, Invented the Wooden Movable-type printer. The world’s first movable type printing press technology for printing paper books was made of ceramic porcelain China materials and invented in ancient China around A.D 1040 by the Han Chinese innovator Bi Sheng (990–1051) during the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127).
(1309) Christian Europe developed a method of printing with a press. This was the religious act of copying patterns and designs onto a piece of cloth. During the 1400s when paper became more easily accessible,the medium transferred very quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards.
(1338) France, Troyes, Opens its first paper mill. A paper mill, by definition, creates paper. The method of making paper is relatively simple.
- Mix up vegetable fibres, and cook them in hot water until the fibres are soft but not dissolved. (The hot water also contains a base chemical such as lye, which softens the fibres as they are cooking).
- Then, pass a screen-like material through the mixture.
- Let the water drip off and/or evaporate.
- Then squeeze or blot out additional water.
- A layer of paper is left behind.
(Essential to the process are the fibres, which are never totally destroyed, and, when mixed and softened, form an interlaced pattern within the paper itself).
Modern papermaking methods, although significantly more complicated than the older ways, are developmental improvements rather than entirely new methods of making paper.
Read More: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Paper.html
Germany opens its first paper mill.
Korea created the Foundries. This is where bronze casting is produced.
From China, Block printing reaches Europe. Europeans use Block Printing to produce books.
Europe begins using metal plates for printing. Using movable metal type, Gutenberg prints the Bible which he finishes in 1456.
Mainz : Johann Fust & Peter Schoeffer
The Mainz Psalter
Printed on vellum in black and red, with woodblock two-colour initials, manuscript music and large coloured capitals in blue and red; folio.
Germans invented drypoint engraving, a printmaking technique wherein an image is incised into a plate with a hard-pointed “needle” or sharp metal or diamond point.
William Caxton, an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer, is said to be the first to introduce and use the Gutenberg printing press into England.
A flemish book called II Monte Sancto di Dio is the first to use Intaglio printmaking technique for book illustration.
England Opens it’s first known paper mill.
England introduces its first wallpaper. It was an Italian-inspired woodcut pomegranate design printed in the back of a proclamation of 1509.
The first weekly newspaper is published in Antwerp
The King James Bible has been published. It became England’s version of the Bible translated from the original Hebrew and Greek languages into English at the request of King James I of England.
Germans invented the mezzotint technique
(1691) UNITED STATES
The U.S Opens it’s first known paper mill.
Daily Courant is the first English language daily newspaper commencing from the premises of fleet street, a street in the city of London.
William Ged invents stereotyping, a technique wherein a whole page of type is cast in a single mould to create a printing plate.
Lord Braille invents embossed printing.
INDUSTRIAL AGE PRINTING
(1841) Place Unknown
The type-composing machine has been developed.
Electrotyping has been invented.
American inventor Richard Hoe designed an improved printing press that can print 8,000 sheets an hour.
German inventor Ottmar Mergenthaler invented the Linotype machine, the first device that could easily and quickly set complete lines of type for use in printing presses.
(1870) Place Unknown
Paper made from wood pulp begins mass production.
Czech painter Karl Klic developed photogravure in its mature form.
Mimeograph machine has been introduced.
The Diazotype machine has been invented.
There are two components in this process:
- diazonium salt: a light sensitive chemical
- Azo dye (also known as the coupler): a colourless chemical that combines with the salt to produce colour.
These two chemicals are mixed together in water and coated onto paper. The resulting coating is then dried yielding the specially treated paper commercially sold as Diazo paper. This solution can also be applied to the polyester film or to vellum.
4-colour rotary press invented
Offset lithography is being commonly used to produce posters, maps, books, newspapers, and packaging.
Commercial silk screen printing has been developed.
American inventor Chester Carlson invented a dry printing process called electrophotography, commonly called a Xerox.
The foto setter, the first phototypesetter. Has been invented.
Remington-Rand develops the first high-speed printer for use on the Univac computer.
EARLY DIGITAL PRINTING 1955-1984
Xerox introduces the first automatic xerographic printer, the copy flow.
Brother Industries, Ltd. Enter the printer market during its long association with Centronics.
SATO Introduced the world’s first thermal transfer barcode printer in 1979
Epson (Gets in printer business) In September 1968, Shinshu Seiki launched the world’s first Mini-printer, the EP-101.
American engineer and inventor Gary Keith Stark weather invented a laser printer based on a modified xerographic copier.
Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts introduced the LA30, a 30 character/second dot matrix printer.
Starting in the late 1970s inkjet printers that could reproduce digital images generated by computers were developed, mainly by Epson, Hewlett-Packard. (HP), and Canon.
SATO America introduces the first thermal transfer Barcode printer.
Canon succeeds in developing a laser printer.
Hewlett-Packard (HP) introduces both inkjet and laser printers for the desktop.
DIGITAL PRINTING AGE (1984 -2007)
Canon introduces the PC printer 70 as the world’s first plain-paper reader/printer for COM.
Canon introduces the BJ-80, the world’s first inkjet printer using bubble jet technology.
Lexmark enters the printer business.
The first major release of 3D printers by Z Corp, Stratasys, and 3D Systems takes place.
(2002) In September, Dell enters the printer market industry.
Kodak introduces the Easy Share LS633, the first camera to feature the Kodak Easy Share Printer Dock 6000 and the first printer-and-camera dock combination.
HP introduces the first wireless printing and Biometric Security solutions for Microsoft.NET compact framework.
Epson launches the wireless printer for retail.
ZINK Imaging unveils the first inkless printer.
NEW PRINTING AGE
True era of smartphones starting. Less reason to print exist.
(2010 – SUMMER)
HP and APPLE Stock value (old printing vs. new printing) part ways.
First under $1000 3D printer released by Rolan.
Imaging supply sales in decline in U.S. Printer and Printer supply manufacturers having tougher time due to increased use of tablets and smartphones
“Clearly analyse and summarise an existing example of a traditionally printed Modernist Poster e.g. Adolphe Mouron Cassandre, Bauhaus, Swiss Style, Paul Rand, etc. explaining what techniques were used to create it and what message/meaning it conveys. Describe: layout, composition, colour, and use of font/type”.
Adolphe Cassandre was fascinated by the strong simple, geometric shapes from the modern movement of graphic design and art during the 1930s.
He based the majority of his easel paintings around the famous artists:Picasso, Braque and Fernand Leger. He used “Cubism” as inspiration for his work, this was one of the most influential visual art styles of the early twentieth century.
One of Adolphe Cassandre’s most famous pieces is called “Normandie” and was painted in 1935. It features an exaggerated scale French Line Transatlantic Cruise ship which is positioned in the centre and covers 80% of the page.
The strips of red on the ship contrast the dark blue background conveying to the viewer that the ship was created recently. Furthermore, the gradient of the background progresses drastically from light blue (at the horizon) to dark blue (almost black) in the atmosphere. This is to enhance the size of the ship by making it look like it reaches space. In comparison, the French flag and the small birds help intensify the illusion of the ships size.
In addition, the direction of light juxtaposes the intimidating front facing angle of the ship, giving it an accommodating impression rather than a descending war-ship.
The simplistic block colours of the ship and background help to embellish the small details of the ship by making them stand out i.e. the birds and the French flag. The title of the poster is unthreatening due to its smooth and curvy typeface, this allows the viewer to feel embraced by the ships warm welcome.
The width of the ship is in proportion to the width of the title “Normandie” which conveys to the audience that the poster is professional and stylised. Similarly, the sub-text is in a thin art deco font, this was to engage with the trend of society so that people would be more attracted to his work.
Metal Gear Solid
Metal Gear Solid was a game that was produced by Hideo Kojima and developed and published by Konami in 1987.The player takes control of a special forces operative (usually Solid Snake or his father, Big Boss) who is assigned to find the titular superweapon “Metal Gear”, a bipedal walking tank with the ability to launch nuclear weapons.
The poster features an ink drawing of the two main characters standing in tandem. The style of drawing was inspired by Japanese art, with the background being white, and the foreground being strong yet simple ink colours. The characters dark ominous shades of blue/green enhance the Title (Metal Gear Solid) of the poster, in turn, more people would be attracted to the design and this would lead to more sales of the game.
The harsh edges of the font “Metal Gear Solid” are combative which contrasts the smooth flow of the ink character drawings. In addition, the clean red gradient of the title contradicts the rustic ink sketch. Lastly, the small fragments from the drawing are similar to the embers from a fire or smoke, this connotes the stealth ability which they possess.
Both of the characters are combined, to show the audience that they fight for the same purpose and reason and that they’re inseparable. The vibrant red colour of the title underneath them shows power and justice, this allows the audience to feel embraced and welcomed by their presence.
Overall, the poster is balanced due to its well-proportioned composition, rustic ink sketches and contrasting colours which provide to the eye-catching design.